Brazilian Modernism: Furniture Design in Brazil – Part #2

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continues from Part # 1

Considered one of the founding fathers of Brazilian design, Sergio Rodrigues, is still producing some of his best known designs. The roots of Rodrigues’ work lies in his use of traditional raw materials such as jacaranda, eucalyptus, peroba and imbuia woods to create icons of Brazilian taste, value and identity. His most famous design is his “Poltrona Mole”; his furniture was utilized in a large scale for Oscar Niemeyer´s iconic buildings of Brasilia. In 2001 the Brazilian manufacturer LinBrasil acquired the rights for the reproduction of the “Sergio Rodrigues furniture line” and meanwhile produces 28 of Rodrigues’ works.

Italian born Lina Bo Bardi began her career in Milan under Gio Ponti, she was a prolific architect and designer who devoted her working life, most of it spent in Brazil, to promoting the social and cultural potential of architecture and design. She would pioneer in the use of laminated and compensated wood, at a time the use of massive logs prevailed. However, bent tubular metal would be the main component of Lina’s most notable creations, which include the Tripé chair (1948), the Bola chair (1950), and her famous Bowl chair (1951). These chair designs would be used for the furnishing of one of Brazil’s architectural masterworks, designed and erected by Lina in 1951: the Casa de Vidro, the couple’s residence in Sao Paulo’s Morumbi neighborhood. Nowadays, Brazilian furniture company ETEL is launching a new series of 12 re-issues on Lina Bo Bardi´s work; and Italian chair manufacturer ARPER has released a limited-edition of 500 chairs of Bo Bardi’s charming Bowl chair.

Cadeira Tripé designed by Lina Bo Bardi (1948)

Lina Bo Bardi´s Poltrona Bola (1950)

Lina Bo Bardi Cadeira Auditório MASP

Bardi Bowl Chair (1951)

José Zanine Caldas is known as the “Master of the Wood” due to his knowledge and passion for solid wood as a material, he was possibly the first to utilize the tropical hardwoods in their most raw and pure state. Austrian born designer Martin Eisler, after meeting the Hauner brothers in Brazil, started designing for FORMA. Eisler also opened Forma in Buenos Aires, as an architectural, industrial and interior design firm known as Interieur Forma. Eisler´s “Poltrona Costela” is his best known design.

There were also other mid-century Brazilian furniture designers like Ricardo Fasanello working with more innovative materials. Fasanello’s work blends unmistakable Brazilian aesthetics with a cool sophistication. His studio developed into a sort of design laboratory for experimenting with a wide range of materials. Steel, glass, resin, fiberglass, leather and wood were all explored to make beautiful and functional objects. He was inspired by mathematical shapes of curves, circles and spheres, which recalled his penchant for automobiles and speed. The “Fardos” Sofa was his first international success.

Moving on to contemporary names in Brazilian furniture design, we have Hugo Franca, a Brazilian designer who works in the same tradition as modernist Brazilian masters; Hugo is best known for his reverential use of raw Brazilian hardwoods. Working exclusively with fallen and dead trees and old canoes he purchases from the Pataxó Indian tribes in Bahia, França creates unique designs that showcase the beauty of these natural materials. Another outstanding young Brazilian designer is Julia Krantz: Julia is part of an emerging generation embracing and redefining the sense of “Brazilianess” that has long shaped their country’s art and design. Her furniture is carved from stack-laminated plywood, crafted in sensuous, organic and monumental pieces, inspired by the rich landscape of her native Brazil. In her work, ecology plays a fundamental role. She has a commitment to only using materials obtained through sustainable management and refusing to employ endangered species.

 

 

 

Historically Brazil ranks among the world’s 10 largest furniture manufactures and produces today an astounding variety of modern architecture and furniture, only partially known. Design and production are concentrated in the country´s southern states, perhaps not coincidentally, as they have large Italian immigrant populations dating from the 19th century. A strong tradition of craftsmanship and a national love of modernism combined with a wealth of resources, a relatively weak local currency and an unfaltering Euro, set the stage for Brazilian designer-manufactures to become important players in the world of high-profile furniture design. European furniture companies EDRA and Vitra have given Brazilian design in general and the Campana Brothers in particular an international profile. Fernando and Humberto Campana were first noticed by the media in the late 1990’s when they became the first Brazilian artists to exhibit their work at The Museum of Modern Art in New York; their breakout design of the “Vermelha Chair” is still their best seller.

 

Now that you have finished reading my posts about modernist furniture design in Brazil, I would like you to revisit some of Don S. Shoemaker´s design lines (in particular his famous “Descanso Line”, the Perno´s chair and his iconic Sling Casuals Line) in order to be able to clearly differentiate Don’s work from the top furniture designers just discussed above. Why? Because several of Don´s furniture pieces have been mistaken for 1960’s Brazilian designs…

We could definitely establish some parallelism between Don and his Brazilian counterparts:

  • Brazilian rosewood species (Bahia Rosewood, Jacarandá da Bahia, Rio Rosewood, Jacarandá De Brasil, Pianowood, Caviuna or Obuina) belong to the same genus “Dalbergia” (native in the Americas to the tropical regions of Mexico, Central and South America); Don used Mexican rosewood varieties (cocobolo, granadilla, gaiac, curamo, etc.) to produce his furniture pieces, while his Brazilian counterparts used hardwoods from similar species available in their country.
  • Don essentially utilized leather in his furniture designs, as Brazilian furniture designers did during the same period of time.

If there was any kind of connection between Don and the Brazilian modernist movement is hard to say,  since Don began working on his first furniture designs in the early 1950’s to finally introduce them in the year 1960.

The Mexican modernist movement developed in a different way and I will write a separate chapter on this.

Copyright © 2010-2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

 

Brazilian Modernism: Furniture Design in Brazil – Part #1

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When Le Corbusier visited Rio de Janeiro for the first time in 1929, his impression was that Brazil was a fascinating country but rather provincial. Although he gave a few lectures, these were reserved for a privileged, highly educated circle that was able to follow his talks in French. Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer were among these few; they would later come to define “Brazilian Modernism”. Both, Niemeyer and Costa made a stunning entrance with the “Brazilian Pavilion” at New York World’s Fair in 1939, followed in 1943 by the ‘Brazil Builds’ exhibition at the MOMA and later on, with a touring exhibition of the same name in Europe.

Today Oscar Niemeyer is considered one of the most important names in international modern architecture. Niemeyer’s architecture serves as the singular visual reference for Brazilian modernism worldwide, with the most iconic example being his full-scale design of the capital city, Brasilia. Much like his architecture, Niemeyer’s furniture designs were meant to evoke the beauty of Brazil: the exceptional local craftsmanship, the sweeping organic curves imitating the female form and the hills of Rio de Janeiro, and the use of rich native materials like leather and Brazilian hardwoods. Oscar Niemeyer´s “Rio Chaise Lounge” is his most famed furniture design and embodies all that is Brazil.

Joaquim Tenreiro, Sergio Rodrigues, Jorge Zalszupin, Percival Lafer, Jean Gillon and Michel Arnoult are the pioneers of the Brazilian Modernist movement. Using natural resources, tropical hardwoods, cane and understanding the need for comfort and beauty, these architects and designers produced furniture for everyone. Lafer and Arnoult were at the forefront of Ready-to-Assemble furniture that was made of solid hardwoods, like Goncalo-Alves (Tiger wood) which resembles Jacaranda (Brazilian rosewood) and utilized leather upholstery. Below I have put together a brief portrait of the most influential Brazilian furniture designers that have contributed to Modernism in Brazil:

Rumanian born Jean Gillon moved to Brazil in 1956, where he developed simultaneously projects on interior architecture, fine arts and design. He projected luxury hotels throughout Brazil as well as stores and homes and he was a remarkable creator of tapestries – usually one-of-a-kind pieces elaborated with different techniques, based on gouache drawings. Gillon started to design furniture due to his architecture clients demands and, in 1961, he founded his first company, Fábrica de Móveis Cidam, later followed by WoodArt, in which he produced full lines of Brazilian rosewood furniture pieces and objects, using leather as well as upholstery. As a visionary businessman, he turned to exports and at one point he worked with 22 different countries. He collaborated with MTM – Indústria de Móveis Village, Italma, and Probel, which produced his designs. His most famous design is his “Cadeira Jangada” Chair and Ottoman, also called ‘Captain’s Chair’.

French born Michel Arnoult is recognized as one of the fathers of the Ready-To-Assemble furniture (RTA) and the flat-packaging. He arrived in Brazil in the early 1950’s and made friend with modern architect Oscar Niemeyer and painter Cândido Portinari. At this time, modern architecture and its applications in the field of social housing reach their peak and Arnoult realizes that there is no suitable furniture for the smallest dimensions of these new interiors. He decides to design simple furniture and focuses its researches on the concept of RTA furniture. Arnoult becomes the first businessman of RTA furniture in Brazil and sets up in 1952 his company “Mobilia Cotemporânea” in Curitiba. This company was one of the very first companies in the world to be devoted exclusively to RTA furniture design and manufacture. It was the premises of the current Cash & Carry. One of the best examples of this concept is his armchair “Peg Lev” literally “I take and I carry”.

Michel Arnoult PegLev Armchair (1968)

Percival Lafer took over his father’s furniture company The Lafer Co., founded in 1927. The factory was named “Lafer MP”, the initials MP meaning “Moveis Patenteados”, Portuguese for Patented Furniture. The Lafer Co. has become synonymous with high design, often employing some of Brazil’s most famous designers and architects to create furniture pieces. Percival Lafer dedicates most of his time working on new products.

Graceful lines, strong use of local woods and a combination of impeccable woodworking and classical detailing mark Jorge Zalszupin’s furniture. Polish born Zalzsupin founded the design collective “L’Atelier” in 1959, which would become one of the most important furniture companies in Brazil. Starting as a small workshop where Jorge had brought together a team of highly-skilled craftsmen, L’Atelier soon turned into a power house, a direct competitor to Sergio Rodrigues’ Oca, with 300 employees at the end of the 1960’s and outlets all across the country – and even in the US. Zalszupin’s pioneering use of plywood and chromed metal became the signature of L’Atelier furniture, but the company also had an important role in the introduction on the Brazilian market of injection-molded plastic objects – L’Atelier was the licensee for Robin Day’s Hille chair. In the early 1980’s, Zalszupin left L’Atelier in order to devote himself to architecture.

Portuguese born furniture designer Joaquim Tenreiro took a different approach by creating furniture that was an exercise in lightness. His furniture designs all made use of the indigenous Brazilian woods that are known for not only their beauty, but also their strength. With the help of his major client, architect Oscar Niemeyer, he was able to experiment on his ideas to create furniture that was “formally light”, a lightness which had nothing to do with weight itself, but with graciousness and the functionality of spaces. His exquisitely crafted pieces evoke a refined coexistence of traditional values and modern aesthetics, strongly bound to the Brazilian cultural milieu. With an unparalleled acuity for form, scale, detailing and craftsmanship he helped steer his generation of designers away from copies of traditional European furniture to a “new look” that embraced Brazilian culture and emerging modern preferences. In spite of his success and his professional recognition, sometime in the late 1960’s Tenreiro decided to close up his shops – retail and manufacturing. The Father of the Brazilian Modernist Design Movement had decided to concentrate on his painting and sculpture – activities in which he had been engaged privately for many decades.

Architect of Italian origin Giuseppe Scapinelli ran a furniture shop in Sao Paolo in the 1950’s, from which he sold his own designs. Opposite to Tenreiro, Sergio Rodrigues and Zanine Caldas, he remained rather anonymous for many years; he made his first appearance in the “Brazilian Modern” exhibition at the Oscar Niemeyer Museum in Curitiba in 2010. His style is characterized by curvy lines and soft shapes, very much away from the mainstream designs of his fellow retailers. Scapinelli was rediscovered and is now a synonym of boldness, sophistication and quality in Brazilian furniture in 1950´s and 1960´s.

 

 

…..to be continued in Part # 2

Copyright © 2010-2017 Karin Goyer.
All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

W A R N I N G !!!

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Beware of these Don S. Shoemaker attributions:

 

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

Don S. Shoemaker: A Craftsman’s Legacy

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Don passed away in May 1990. He left us an unrivaled aesthetic legacy through his remarkable furniture designs, now becoming modern classics sought after by collectors, galleries, auction houses and individuals worldwide. Apparently the intrinsic value of the woods used in the production (some of them now extinct) is something that they are starting to realize and evidently is sparking the boom of this search not to mention the value of the design, production and hand-craftsmanship compared to prices that have reached pieces from novel designers of stack-laminated wood, sold in $ 7,000 USD for a centerpiece making Don´s production of solid wood so attractive to them.

His furniture designs from the 1960’s and 1970’s are becoming important examples of 20th century design. He developed his own identity and style which remained evolving throughout his whole career maintaining the principles of high quality hand-craftsmanship and the intensive use of solid native precious woods. Don´s work has been included in many national and international art and design exhibitions held at renowned galleries and museums like the Museo de Arte Moderno (MAM) in Mexico City.

During his more than three decades of dedicated work Don designed a significant number of iconic furniture masterpieces, all produced in exotic hardwoods, which he favored for their inherent strength, durability and magnificent beauty:

  • Organic designs: the most unique “Scissor” Sling chair (an armchair with folding braces), his Sling “Sloucher” and “Swinger” chairs.
  • Progressive designs: the famous stack-laminated “Diamond” desk and table
  • Rectilinear designs: the “Parsons Line” including suites for every room in your house
  • Unmatchable coffee table designs: the “Cuerno”, “Sling”, “Elephant” Lounge and “Descanso” coffee tables.
  • Dining room set designs: the “Sling” dining room set, cabinets and sideboards
  • Lounge and living room designs: the “Descanso” set and “Pernos” Lounge set

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

The versatile Parsons Line – Tables for table freaks

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The Parsons Line is probably Don S. Shoemaker´s most rectilinear and functional furniture design line. This time he overlooks the charms of nature in favor of a rigorous abstract approach to design. While there were significant changes in the manufacturing techniques of the post-war time like aluminum casting and bonding wood, this industrial furniture production brought back the concept of built-in obsolescence or disposable furniture. As a response to this movement Don maintained the principles of craftsmanship and use of precious woods that are evident in this line which most purely expresses immutability, strength and vastness. He kept loyal to his principle of beauty and handcrafted furniture.

This line included everything that his passionate followers and collectors could think of to have their homes or flats completely furnished á la Shoemaker: coordinating suites of furniture for living room and dining room, matching cabinets and sideboards, all kinds of table sizes, service carts, office as well as bedroom sets, etc. I will try to present all of them to you within a reasonable period of time.

I will start with the Parsons tables, as there were a total of 11 different sizes to choose from! No other of Don´s design lines had this versatile number of table sizes and shapes.

The vintage SEÑAL, S.A. catalog page above shows us three Parsons table sizes: a rectangular dining table, a side table and a square coffee table. The design of these tables is pure and rectilinear. All of the Parsons tables came with a clean parquetry top and were produced in rosewood. Here we have a pair of Parsons tables coming in different sizes:

These tables were meant to fit in your living room, your dining room, your bedroom, your office, or any imaginable space to keep your home impregnated with the unmistakable Shoemaker style! Personally, I prefer Don´s organic design lines, but a significant number of his clients favored these furniture pieces.

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

Linear designs – The Diamond Line

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Many of my readers have asked me to write about Don´s “Diamond Line” designs. You may recall that I already published a post on the renowned diamond desk, which became a legend as one of Mexico´s most prominent newscasters, Jacobo Zabludovsky used to broadcast the daily news sitting on his diamond desk. I also called on your attention to the brand new unlabeled diamond desk copies that I have found on sale at auctions and galleries. (Check my posts “AAD – Appearances are deceptive” and “New Don S. Shoemaker copies – the diamond desk”).

The “Diamond Line” or sometimes referred as to the “Z Line” was the result from Don´s experiments during the decade of the 1970´s with linear designs, these furniture pieces were superbly crafted in laminated exotic woods, some of which I will introduce to you below.

Diamond Line dining or conference table. This spectacular stack-laminated table could be used for a dining room set or a conference room.

Matching dining/conference table ZigZag chairs. This is Don´s reinterpretation from the De Stijl, the famous cantilevered zigzag chair designed by Garrit Rietveld. The pictures below show samples of ZigZag chairs from different periods, although I have to point out that the traditional Shoemaker black leather upholstery that comes attached to seat and back is missing on two of them.

Don´s ZigZag Chair

Don Shoemaker´s Zig Zag Chair with black leather upholstery

• George Shoemaker´s ZigZag Chair

Diamond side table. Very stylish, the perfect complement for a Diamond dining room set. As seen in a Mexico City gallery.

Of course, there are more geometric designs to show from this line, but I will keep some of them for a future occasion!

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

The palo fierro dominoes sets from the Seri Natives

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Some time ago I published a post on Don S. Shoemaker´s dominoes sets. These game sets were made in 2 different versions: the “tronco” (organic design box) and the boxed sliding lid models; the former also had a first series with a matching wood lid and the ones produced by George with a see-thru fiberglass lid.

This time I have to bring your attention to these wonderful Mexican handcraft dominoes sets made in ironwood (“palo fierro” for the locals) by the Seri Natives in the northern state of Sonora, Mexico. The “palo fierro” handcrafts include boxes, sculptures, jewelry, etc., they are of a great artistic value and a source of income for this isolated community. So, I ask the help of all my readers to buy these look-alike dominoes sets and the other handicrafts directly from them and help also to stop the swindlers that are selling these dominoes sets as Don S. Shoemaker originals.

Take a close look at the differences between an authentic Don S. Shoemaker “tronco” dominoes box vs. the beautiful dominoes set interpretation from the Seri natives:

The Don S. Shoemaker “tronco” dominoes set:

  • Don never used ironwood (see box below)
  • The tile dots are made in silver, hollowed and sometimes engraved lines (see 2nd picture below)
  • The box always carries the decal studio label

 

 

The Seri Natives dominoes sets handcraft:

  • They use ironwood for all their handicrafts
  • The tile dots are painted in white (see picture below)
  • You may also find a “deluxe model” with plain silver dots
  • You can also engrave the name of your brother, friend, etc. for a special gift (Mercado Libre “EBAY MEXICO” search palo fierro – see ad below)
  • It is important to know that I do not endorse any of the sites advertising these handcrafts. But, the only way that I thought we could stop this new wave of alleged “Shoemaker dominoes sets” (that I have seen in galleries, auction houses and weekend flea markets going for $ 300 USD and more) is to buy directly from the producers of these sets knowing that we are not going to get a Shoemaker for $ 12 bucks but we are going to help the Seri natives in Sonora and they are going to be grateful.

 

 

Don is going to be proud of you guys because as you know, he was always involved in Charity programs.

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com


Shoemaker´s work at Zona MACO 2011

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I was busy in Paris checking out a wonderful desk from my favorite 20th century French Art Deco designer, Emile-Jacques Ruhlmann when the Mexican Contemporary Art Fair Zona MACO 2011 was taking place in Mexico City from April 6-10, 2011. Of course, I counted on my readers to keep me informed on the highlights of this event and I was amazed by the great amount of comments on the exhibition and pictures that I received on furniture pieces displayed by Mexican and international design galleries in the “ZonaMACO Diseño” pavilion. Interestingly, Don S. Shoemaker´s work was represented at 3 out of the 10 participating galleries in this pavilion…

My attention was captivated by these rare Don S. Shoemaker Lounge chairs that were exhibited by one of the participating galleries:

The “Pernos” Lounge chair was one of Don´s experimental chair designs from the 1960’s when most designers of the time were using welded steel–rod body and frame like Harry Bertoia, Herman Miller and some others became fond of plywood beginning with the Eames passing by Sori Yanagi, Carlo Mollino and last but not least the extensive use by some other designers of fiberglass. As a matter of fact he used to try to find answers in wood to BAUHAUS designs in tubular steel or aluminum. (He also developed an interpretation from the De Stijl, the famous zigzag chair of Garrit Rietveld). Don´s innovative “Pernos” lounge chair had a complicated and very precise assembly process, each chair´s manufacture was personally supervised by him; they were produced during a limited period of time in small quantities. He was not necessarily extremely fond to linear designs, these chairs became exclusive collection pieces to his passionate followers.

Some of Don´s classic Sling furniture pieces were nicely presented by other galleries as well, unfortunately I also recognized a new copy that I had already brought to light last year in my post “AAD – Appearances are deceptive“, related to new Don S. Shoemaker copies. For those of you who visited Zona MACO 2011 you will discover the unlucky copy right away!

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

Mexican Design exhibition at the MAM in 1975 – Part #3

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Po Shun Leong´s story (Part #3) on his acquaintance with Don S. Shoemaker in Mexico since the 1960’s and how this friendship impacted his career.

So, how did Po Shun Leong come to Mexico? Here is his humorous narrating:

“It was a serendipitous accident. Actually I was not sure where the country was, as it was not part of the former British Empire. We were mostly taught about the British colonies then. My (high) school in England was run by Quakers. They were involved in many social projects. After college the American Friends Service Committee asked me to volunteer in constructing a community building for the Passamaquoddy Indians in Maine. I replied “Send me anywhere else but Maine.” So they sent me to Mexico to live in a remote village in Tlaxcala on the side of “La Malinche” mountain. There was no water, electricity or road. I lived for a year with the volunteers, helping to build a 110 meter deep well by hand, a library, a bridge, veterinary services. The local priest called us communists in his church sermon and the police did a raid in search of drugs, but none of us smoked or consumed alcohol and the villagers supported our presence and taught us some Nahuatl. I became padrino to several children. This experience was THE introduction to Mexico.

I worked in the Cultural section of the Olympics. I was assisting Susana Esponda, Director from the Festival de “Pintura Infantil”. Children from participating countries came to Mexico to paint large murals that were exhibited along el Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City. Pedro Ramirez Vazquez took a close interest in this event. We used to practice painting methods and display in the patio of the architect’s home in El Pedregal with guidance from the muralist Jose Chavez Morado.”

And here are some interesting images from the Exhibition of Contemporary Furniture that Po Shun Leong helped to install with Prof. Alfonso Soto Soria in the Museo de Arte Moderno (MAM) back in 1975 whilst living in Mexico.

Side by side Po Shun Leong and Don S. Shoemaker presented some of their furniture pieces at this 1975 “Exposición de Diseño Mexicano” in the Museo de Arte Moderno (MAM), Mexico City. Here you can see Don S. Shoemaker´s wood furniture and some of Po Shun Leong´s contemporary fiber-glass chairs:

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

Don S. Shoemaker and Po Shun Leong–Part #2

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Po Shun Leong´s interesting story (Part #2) on how he met Don S. Shoemaker in Mexico since the 1960’s and how this friendship influenced his career:

In 1981 we left Mexico and settled in California just before the deep recession began. It was as though life had stopped still. I lost contact with Don.

In California I began making little functional band sawn boxes from off-cuts or locally found wood, like Don’s “Organic Design Box”. We spend many a weekend selling our handicrafts in local craft fairs. Gradually with more confidence, the work evolved to beyond being merely functional becoming dramatic in expression as one-of-a-kind objects, inspired from the legendary places of the world such as Uxmal, Machu Picchu or Rome.

Two of Po Shun Leong´s fantastic boxes are shown here:

The Ancient Ruins Box:

The Landscape Box:

Thanks to Don’s earlier encouragement and direction it only took a few short years to become a completely independent studio furniture maker in the Los Angeles area. My work has been shown in the top shows, galleries and is in various permanent museum collections.

The Pasadena  Console:

In 1989 or 1990 I was exhibiting my work in a show organized by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC when an elderly man in a wheelchair came into the booth, accompanied by a woman, his daughter. He looked around and saw my name on the wall and remembered me from years back. Not long afterwards he passed away. His daughter purchased one of my art furniture pieces in his memory.

Last year I had the opportunity to participate in the “Vida y Diseño en Mexico” exhibition with some of my furniture from Mexico and was especially honored to be in the same place as Don.

Po Shun Leong

http://www.poshunleong.com/ptang.html

P.S. I remember Don saying that he was good friends with the Cardenas family, especially Lazaro Cardenas. I used to be in friendly contact and work with Doña Amalia, wife of the ex-president and her sister Virginia. They had a home in Tacambaro. Doña Amalia headed a charity program in Oaxaca which she visited every year and I had designed and made hundreds of children’s furniture that she donated to the nurseries. I accompanied her in those trips. When I hurt my leg they gave me a walking stick to get around on. I still keep the stick in my car,  just in case.

Copyright © 2010 – 2017 Karin Goyer. All Rights Reserved.

@donshoemaker.com

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